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Информация за страница Degree programs

A college or university diploma, often associated with a title and sometimes associated with an academic position is an academic degree. It is usually awarded in recognition of the recipient having either satisfactorily completed a prescribed course of study or having conducted a scholarly endeavor deemed worthy or her or his admission to the degree. Bachelor’s, master’s, associate’s and doctorate degrees are the most common degrees awarded in our days. Generally most of the higher education institutions offer certificates and several programs that lead to the obtainment of a Master of Advanced Studies which is predominantly known under its original French name. In medieval Europe doctorate degree appeared as a license to teach at a medieval university. Its roots can be traced to early church when the term “doctor” referred to the church fathers, apostles and other Christian authorities who interpreted and taught the Bible. The right to grant a licentia docendi was originally reserved to the church.

    It required the applicant to pass a test to take oath of allegiance and pay a fee. The access now largely free of charge of all the applicants who were still tested for aptitude by the ecclesiastic scholastic was guaranteed by the Third Council of the Lateran of 1179. The right remained a bone of contention between the slowly emancipating universities and the church authorities but was granted by the Pope to the University of Paris in 1231. It became a universal license to teach. While the licentia continued to hold a higher prestige than the bachelor’s degree, however, it was ultimately reduced to an intermediate step to the doctorate and Magister, both of which now became the exclusive qualification for teaching. Doctoral training at the university was form of apprenticeship to a guild. The traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of Master of Arts, seven years, was the same as the term of apprenticeship for other occupations. The term “doctor” and “master” were originally synonymous but the doctorate came to be regarded as a higher qualification than a master degree over time.

    Candidates who have completed 3 or 4 years of study in the prescribed texts of the grammar, rhetoric and logic and mathematics, astronomy, music and geometry together known as Liberal Arts would be admitted to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. These students had successfully passed examinations held by their master. Further study, and in particular successful participation in and then moderating of disputations would learn one of Master of Arts degree from the Latin magister, teacher, entitling one to teach these subjects. Under the “higher facilities” of Law, Theology or Medicine Master of Arts were eligible to enter study and earn first a bachelor’s and then doctorate or master degrees in these subjects. Thus a degree was only a step on the way to becoming a fully qualified master – hence the English word “graduate”, which is based on the Latin gradus.

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